CSS background properties are used to define the background effects of an element.

CSS properties used for background effects:

  • background-color
  • background-image
  • background-repeat
  • background-attachment
  • background-position


Background Color

The background-color property specifies the background color of an element.
The background color of a page is defined in the body selector:

Example
Code:
body {background-color:#b0c4de;}
Try it yourself

The background color can be specified by:

  • name - a color name, like "red"
  • RGB - an RGB value, like "rgb(255,0,0)"
  • Hex - a hex value, like "#ff0000"

In the example below, the h1, p, and div elements have different background colors:

Example

Code:
h1 {background-color:#6495ed;}
p {background-color:#e0ffff;}
div {background-color:#b0c4de;}
Try it yourself


Background Image



The background-image property specifies an image to use as the background of an element.
By default, the image is repeated so it covers the entire element.
The background image for a page can be set like this:

Example
Code:
body {background-image:url('paper.gif');}
Try it yourself

Below is an example of a bad combination of text and background image. The text is almost not readable:

Example
Code:
body {background-image:url('bgdesert.jpg');}
Try it yourself


Background Image - Repeat Horizontally or Vertically

By default, the background-image property repeats an image both horizontally and vertically.
Some images should be repeated only horizontally or vertically, or they will look strange, like this:

Example
Code:
body
{
background-image:url('gradient2.png');
}
Try it yourself

If the image is repeated only horizontally (repeat-x), the background will look better:

Example

Code:
body
{
background-image:url('gradient2.png');
background-repeat:repeat-x;
}
Try it yourself


Background Image - Set position and no-repeat

When using a background image, use an image that does not disturb the text.
Showing the image only once is specified by the background-repeat property:

Example

Code:
body
{
background-image:url('img_tree.png');
background-repeat:no-repeat;
}
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In the example above, the background image is shown in the same place as the text. We want to change the position of the image, so that it does not disturb the text too much.

The position of the image is specified by the background-position property:

Example

Code:
body
{
background-image:url('img_tree.png');
background-repeat:no-repeat;
background-position:right top;
}
Try it yourself


Background - Shorthand property

As you can see from the examples above, there are many properties to consider when dealing with backgrounds.
To shorten the code, it is also possible to specify all the properties in one single property. This is called a shorthand property.
The shorthand property for background is simply "background":

Example

Code:
body {background:#ffffff url('img_tree.png') no-repeat right top;}
Try it yourself

When using the shorthand property the order of the property values are:

  • background-color
  • background-image
  • background-repeat
  • background-attachment
  • background-position

It does not matter if one of the property values is missing, as long as the ones that are present are in this order.