Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions.




Conditional Statements

Very often when you write code, you want to perform different actions for different decisions. You can use conditional statements in your code to do this.

In JavaScript we have the following conditional statements:

  • if statement - use this statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true
  • if...else statement - use this statement to execute some code if the condition is true and another code if the condition is false
  • if...else if....else statement - use this statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed
  • switch statement - use this statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed


If Statement


Use the if statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true.
Syntax
Code:
if (condition)
  {
  code to be executed if condition is true
  }
Note that if is written in lowercase letters. Using uppercase letters (IF) will generate a JavaScript error!

Example
Code:
<script type="text/javascript">
//Write a "Good morning" greeting if
//the time is less than 10

var d=new Date();
var time=d.getHours();

if (time<10)
  {
  document.write("<b>Good morning</b>");
  }
</script>
Try it yourself

Notice that there is no ..else.. in this syntax. You tell the browser to execute some code only if the specified condition is true.


If...else Statement

Use the if....else statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if the condition is not true.

Syntax
Code:
if (condition)
  {
  code to be executed if condition is true
  }
else
  {
  code to be executed if condition is not true
  }
Example
Code:
<script type="text/javascript">
//If the time is less than 10, you will get a "Good morning" greeting.
//Otherwise you will get a "Good day" greeting.

var d = new Date();
var time = d.getHours();

if (time < 10)
  {
  document.write("Good morning!");
  }
else
  {
  document.write("Good day!");
  }
</script>
Try it yourself


If...else if...else Statement

Use the if....else if...else statement to select one of several blocks of code to be executed.

Syntax
Code:
if (condition1)
  {
  code to be executed if condition1 is true
  }
else if (condition2)
  {
  code to be executed if condition2 is true
  }
else
  {
  code to be executed if condition1 and condition2 are not true
  }
Example
Code:
<script type="text/javascript">
var d = new Date()
var time = d.getHours()
if (time<10)
  {
  document.write("<b>Good morning</b>");
  }
else if (time>10 && time<16)
  {
  document.write("<b>Good day</b>");
  }
else
  {
  document.write("<b>Hello World!</b>");
  }
</script>
Try it yourself